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Морская биогеоморфология: биогенная трансформация морских донных ландшафтов

https://doi.org/10.31857/S0435428121030081

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Аннотация

Биогенная трансформация подводных ландшафтов – один из ведущих факторов, определяющих современный облик дна. Задача морской биогеоморфологии – изучение всех аспектов биологической модификации геоморфологических процессов, т.е. описание, систематизация и количественная оценка влияния биоты на формирование донного рельефа. В обзоре систематизированы и кратко охарактеризованы основные виды воздействия морских организмов на геоморфологические процессы. Живые организмы создают биогенные структуры и материал для донных отложений, изменяют рельеф, физические и химические свойства донных отложений и коренных пород, участвуют в разрушении пород на морском дне (от илов до базальтов), переносе и перераспределении материала на дне и в придонном слое; они способны переводить растворенный в воде кальций и кремний в нерастворимые (или слабо растворимые) карбонаты и силикаты. Примером биогенных сооружений служат рифы – коралловые и созданные многощетинковыми червями, мидиевые и устричные банки. Животные создают не только положительные, но и отрицательные формы рельефа, размеры которых могут превышать десятки метров, а время существования – недели и даже месяцы: ямы, канавы, воронки на поверхности дна – следы питания самых разных животных: моржей, черепах, китов, скатов и др. Микро- и макроорганизмы формируют глубокие ниши вблизи уреза воды (биокарст). Мангры, водоросли-макрофиты и морские травы защищают дно от размыва, а породы на дне от выветривания, работают как седиментационные ловушки, в которых накапливаются тонкие фракции осадка. Рыбы переносят материал с рифа в лагуну. Водоросли-макрофиты за счет парусности могут переносить валуны и гальку на большие расстояния (“рафтинг”). Многие виды двустворчатых моллюсков и другие фильтраторы пропускают через себя большие объемы воды, отсеивая из нее минеральную взвесь. Вертикальное перемещение (биотурбация) осадков роющими грунт червеобразными животными и уплотнение грунта ими (биостабилизация) изменяют физические свойства донных осадков. Один и тот же вид часто играет противоположные роли – увеличивает прочность осадка или уменьшает ее. Многообразие и разнонаправленность биологических процессов затрудняют выявление вклада биоты в геоморфологические процессы и их количественную оценку. За некоторыми исключениями пространственный масштаб деятельности единичных организмов редко превышает первые сантиметры. Заметной становится только совокупная деятельность многих совместно обитающих организмов. Практические приложения биогеоморфологии связаны с разработкой мер для берегоукрепления и защиты берегов.

Об авторе

В. О. Мокиевский
Институт океанологии им. П.П. Ширшова РАН
Россия

Москва



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Для цитирования:


Мокиевский В.О. Морская биогеоморфология: биогенная трансформация морских донных ландшафтов. Геоморфология. 2021;(3):3-23. https://doi.org/10.31857/S0435428121030081

For citation:


Mokievsky V.O. Мarine biogeomorphology: biotic transformation of marine bottom landforms. Geomorfologiya. 2021;(3):3-23. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.31857/S0435428121030081

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