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Геоморфология

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Неотектоническое поднятие гор и геоморфология

https://doi.org/10.31857/S0435-4281201943-26

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Аннотация

Горы — это рельеф, созданный эрозией после вертикального поднятия или “горообразования”. Последнее часто считают синонимом “орогении”, под которой в настоящее время подразумевают формирование структур в поясах складчатости. Общепринятое представление о том, что складчатость и горообразование происходят одновременно во многом неверно. Многие горы сложены не смятыми в складки толщами, гранитами и вулканическими породами; следовательно, нет прямой связи складчатости и горообразования. Во многих случаях, где в основе гор лежат складчатые толщи, складчатость предшествовала планации и поднятию. Значит возраст гор — не возраст последней складчатости (если она вообще была), а возраст вертикального поднятия. Поскольку горные территории не ограничены областями развития складчатых пород, боковое сжатие не является необходимым условием для объяснения поднятия.

Обобщение материалов о времени поднятия гор по всему миру показывает, что главная фаза тектонических поднятий началась около 6 млн л. н., и бὁльшая часть поднятия произошла в последние 2 млн л. Этот период известен как неотектоническая эпоха. Это глобальное явление, охватывающее, в том числе, образование гор на пассивных континентальных окраинах и внутри континентов.

Некоторые гипотезы образования гор плохо согласуются с данной хронологией. Несостоятельность части гипотез в том, что они подходят только для объяснения формирования гор из складчатых пород на континентальных окраинах. Многие обусловливают вертикальные поднятия боковым сжатием, но вертикальные поднятия и сами по себе могут формировать горы.

Неотектонический период очень существенен для геоморфологии, климатологии и глобальной тектоники. Он не увязывается с общепринятыми геоморфологическими теориями, такими как циклы эрозии Дэвиса или Кинга. Неотектонические поднятия могли вызвать несколько циклов эрозии, но большинство поверхностей выравнивания значительно древнее неотектонической эпохи. Растущий рельеф, ассоциирующийся с неотектоническим поднятием, повлиял на темпы денудации и осадконакопления, а также на климат позднего кайнозоя.

Неотектонический период не согласуется с теорией плитотектоники, которая объясняет образование гор сжатием на активных окраинах континентов. Согласно ей горы в других районах созданы аналогичными процессами в более древние эпохи, но это не объясняет молодой возраст горных поднятий во внутриконтинентальных районах и на пассивных окраинах континентов. Субдукцией, которая как предполагается длится сотни миллионов лет, невозможно объяснить поднятия, происходящие по всему миру в последние несколько миллионов лет.

Геоморфологи должны руководствоваться только результатами собственных исследований, а не теоретическими построениями, исходящими из коллизии литосферных плит или гипотез эволюции рельефа.

Об авторах

К. Д. Оллиер
Университет Западной Австралии
Австралия
Школа земли и географических наук


К. Ф. Пайн
Университет Севильи
Испания
MED_Soil, Департамент кристаллографии, минералогии и сельскохозяйственной химии


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Для цитирования:


Оллиер К.Д., Пайн К.Ф. Неотектоническое поднятие гор и геоморфология. Геоморфология. 2019;(4):3-26. https://doi.org/10.31857/S0435-4281201943-26

For citation:


Ollier C.D., Pain C.F. Neotectonic mountain uplift and geomorphology. Geomorfologiya. 2019;(4):3-26. https://doi.org/10.31857/S0435-4281201943-26

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