Геоморфология и палеогеография

Расширенный поиск
№ 3 (1984)
3-15 30

The historical review of investigation of the planetary fractures, faults and lineaments systems is given. The term «planetary» was first applied to fracturing by Hobbs (1905). German geologist F. L6tze (1933) and Rumanian paleogeographer N. Arabu (1937) were first to connect the planetary fracturing genesis with changes in rotation, shape and volume (compression) of the Earth. J. Umbgrove (1947) and E. N. Permyakov (1949) clearly showed that the planetary fracturing consists of four series with general directions 0, 90, 315 and 45O. Results of the statistical analysis of 250 000 fractures, f aults and lineaments made by the author and his colleagues in the course of 25 years of field and remote sensing studies are given.

The constancy of ancient fault plan in the course of geological time and the invariability of the planetary fracturing systems in areas differing in rock composition and age are shown. The age of the Earth's global system of faults and fractures is defined as the Early Pre-Cambriam.

15-22 14

Present state of knowledge in lithological factor of relief-formation is discussed. Morphostructural approach to the problem is considered with special reference to the litho-morphostructural studies at the Pevek Massif (NW Chukchi Peninsula). The degree of structural heterogeneity of massis proved to be most important factor which controlled desintegration of individual rock types as well as erosion within the whole massif. The paper discusses also the genesis of geomorphic indicators of ore-controlling structures at -the Pevek massif.

22-30 25

Some problems of paleogeomorphological reconstructions are discussed and recon structed topography is analysed for Early-Middle Jurassic, Middle Miocene and Middle Pliocene epochs of continental conditions. The epochs are typical for river valleys development which were identified and mapped within the limits of all the Central and south-eastern Russian Plain. Paleo-topography has been reconstructed within the Paleo-Don and PaleoVolga drainage basins; maps are compiled showing the surfaces topography in paleo-isohypses. The Don valley appeared to exist since Pre-Bajocian-Callovian time, and inces-santly since Middle Miocene. Paleo-Volga was formed during Middle Pliocene; under the conditions of low base level it intercepted most of upper Paleo-Don tributaries.

Методика научных исследований 

31-36 14

Methods of geomorphological search-and-estimate studies are based on five principles: 1) optimum correspondence between the studies' scale and the tasks to be solved, 2) consistent and combined analysis of topographic, geological and geomorphological maps, aerial and space photoes, 3) combined analysis of topography (including reconstructed and buried ones) and deposits, 4) river valleys evolution in assumed to represent rhythmical fluctuations superimposed on a un-directional trend, 5) epochs of placers formation are thought to correspond to certain stages in the Cenozoic topography evolution.

36-43 28

The fault tectonics is stated to be leading factor of spatial localisation of exogenous processes; the concept may be used as a theoretical basis of compilation of prognostic engineering geomorphological maps. Methods of engineering-geomorphological mapping are discussed using statistical probability processing of space photoes interpretation data on fault tectonics and exogenous processes; Examples are given of special maps for land reclamation and transport works.

Научные сообщения 

44-50 20

Recently emerged Aral Sea floor reveals areas differing in topography and rocks lithology, which had been formed under conditions of shallow water before the sea level dropped. Three types of landforms are identified: created by marine abrasion (former bench), marine accumulative forms and deltaic ones. Eolian processes are very active now and bark fan dunes are formed, mostly on former sand bars. Salts are blown out at a very high rate, the main area of salt removal being the former archipelago of Akpetkin. Further low wering of the sea level will expose submarine slope of simpler structure and lithology.

50-53 12

Some new data are discussed on the northern flange of the Kuril deep-sea basin in the Sea of Okhotsk. The continental slope is proved to have block-stepped structure, linear depressions between the blocks being traps for sediments. A continental rise is identified as an individual morphological zone differing in stages of evolution. A conclusion on recent downwarping of the basin floor is based on geomorphic features.

54-59 12

Two series of instrumental survey data of a growing gully are compared, one made at -the end of the XIXth century by E. E. Kern and another-carried on recently by the staff of Problem Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Channel Processes (Moscow State University, Geographical Faculty); the limiting size of the gully is estimated on the base of hydrological and morphometric characteristics of the area.

The profile leveling data when compared indicate the current active growth of the gully due to downcutting and lateral erosion. Linear erosion is controlled with a dam in 'the gully's head which intercepts the flow from the upper part of the catchment area.

On the base of the studies the possible further evoluion of the gully can be forecasted and some measures planned for the hazard prevention.

59-65 8

Gully formation in loess-like deposits is usually accompanied by subsidence if porosity coefficient is more than 0.68 and by subsidence and suffusion if the coefficiaent exceeds 1. Granulometry, physical properties and response of the deposits to load determine variety of the gullies types as well as efficiency of the erosion control measures.

65-69 25

The paper reports the results of detailed paleogeomorphological and lithological-facial studies of the Radaev-Bob-rikov layers at the western slope of the South-Tatarian vault and the eastern slope of the Melekess Depression. The buried landforms outlined (eleva-tion and plains) are characterised with special types of sediment sequence and oil traps. Structural-lithological traps are mostly found at plains and elevations, structural oil traps are confined to ancient erosion-accumulative plain. The regularities thus revealed may increase the oil and gas searches efficiency.

69-77 12

The paper discusses conditions under which planation surfaces, weathering crusts and various karst landforms were formed at the Central Siberian Plateau close to the Yenisei River; all the bauxite deposits in the region are associated with their formation. Different types of bauxite deposits appeared to be connected with certain morphostructures or morphostructural zones, the latter are estimated with view to bauxite deposits conservation and prospects to search of certain kinds of deposits

77-80 18

Relative width of channel within limits of rectilinear deep sections (before the river floods over the floodplain surface) is shown to change in proportion with water discharge (mean seasonal values). When the discharge changes are considered in the course of channel filling within a year, an inverse regularity is observed: relative width of channel decreases when discharge increases. Cross-section in case of high level is closer to rectangular when compared with its form under low level conditions.

80-88 9

At the Eastern Mongolia the planation surfaces are outlined dated from Miocene - Early Pliocene, Late Pliocene and Early-Middle Quaternary, as well as Late Quaternary and Early Holocene accumulative plains, Graded topography was formed within Eastern Mongolia at the Middle Jurassic.

88-95 14

Characteris-tic .features of the spatial distribution and structure of «ploughing blocks» are described together with the conditions and the mecanism of their development. Higher heat conductivity of the blocks as compared with underlying and overlying loose sediments is shown to favour their stronger cooling in winter which induces moisture migration towards the blocks, Intermittent freezing and thawing of the sediments results in their flowability and in downslope movement of the solifluction type. The blocks themselves thus locally create «solifluctional conditions» at slopes.

95-100 13

Summit level and base level maps are analysed which were compiled by the author for Siberia and Far East of the USSR. The surfaces appeared to reflect the earthcrust deep structure, the relative position of the summit and base levels permits to estimate the relief energy and morphogenetic processes.


101-102 22

Новая работа по геоморфологии пойм равнинных рек (формирование, развитие, классификация, районирование) - Чернов А. В. Геоморфология пойм равнинных рек (М.: Изд-во МГУ, 1983. 198 с.)

103-106 34

Комплексное картографирование новейшего этапа геологического и геоморфологического развития Среднего и Нижнего Поволжья: 

Карта четвертичных отложений Среднего и Нижнего Поволжья. М-б 1:500 000, СГУ, 1982

Геоморфологическая карта Среднего и Нижнего Поволжья. М-6 1:500 000, СГУ, 1982

Карта новейшей тектоники Среднего и Нижнего Поволжья. М-б 1:500 000, СГУ, 1981

Четвертичные отложения, геоморфология и новейшая тектоника Среднего и Нижнего Поволжья (Пензенская, Куйбышевская, Саратовская, Волгоградская, Астраханская области и Калмыцкая АССР). Объяснительная записка к картам м-ба 1:500000. Саратов, изд-во СГУ, 1982

106-107 9

Палеогеоморфология Эстонии: монография Таваста Эльви, Раукаса Анто "Рельеф коренных пород Эстонии" (Таллин: Валгус, 1982, 194 с.)


108-109 10

С 2 по 6 августа 1983 г. в Таллине состоялось VІ Всесоюзное совещание «История озер в СССР», организованное Институтом геологии и Институтом зоологии и ботаники АН ЭССР совместно с советской секцией проекта № 158 «Палеогидрологические изменения в умеренной зоне за последние 15000 лет» МПГК. В совещании участвовало 263 представителя из 78 организаций, практически из всех научных центров Советского Союза, где занимаются изучением истории озер. На 2 пленарных и 12 секционных заседаниях было заслушано 160 докладов, освещающих разные аспекты пале лимнологии.

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ISSN 2949-1789 (Print)
ISSN 2949-1797 (Online)