Геоморфология и палеогеография

Расширенный поиск
№ 4 (1994)
3-11 22

In Western Europe many researchers noticed broad surfaces above modem valleys; they are known in Rheinisches Schiefergebirge as «broad trough surfaces» (two levels), and in the Central Massif of France as «replats» capped with quartz gravels. However neither their genesis nor age has been established. A comparison with ancient valleys of the Urals brings the author to the conclusion that lower level of the «broad trough surfaces» is an Oligocene terrace, while the upper one is a terrace dated to Pre-Cretaceous time.

11-24 41

The recent Volga delta represents a vast young (Middle Holocene - recent) dynamic constructional unroofed structure. The proper deltaic sediments are rather thin, snow three-fold sequence of regressive type and include various freshwater faces. The Volga mouth underwent considerable changes in the course of the last geological epoch; it was an estuary at the Early Khvalynian maximum, incised and hummocky deltas during regressive phases of the Late Khvalynian, and lobate multi-channeled delta at present. The present delta structure began to form since the New Caspian transgression and passed successively stages of avandelta, a narrow («Kultuk») bay, alluvial subaerial fan. The main factor controlling the delta structure .and evolution is non-stationary regime of the Caspian Sea.


25-28 14

Contrary to views of A. N. Lastochkin, discussed in the paper, the author is of opinion that the topography representation on maps by means of isolines is not necessarily continuous, gradual and unambiguous. Landforms and their elements should be identified using structural lines based on extreme values of elevations, their 1st and 2nd derivatives that, in turn, require the elevations to be rigorously set as a function of horizontal coordinates, which is not possible as yet. Hierarchic classification of the surface landforms is needless if only morphology matters, though it becomes necessary when the genesis and age of the relief are considered.

Экологическая и прикладная геоморфология 

29-31 17

A schematic map is compiled showing pollution of the Izhevsk city territory. Boundaries and configuration of pollution anomalies appear to depend on specific landforms. Large landforms, such as river valley exert active control over pollution distribution, affecting local circulation. Small landforms passively influence the lower air layer in which pollutants transport primarily proceeds. The layer's thickness in not more than first tens of meters.

31-37 16

Denudation processes in north-eastern Byelorussia depend on morphological characteristics of the hilly morainic topography. Data on spatial organization and morphometry of the topographic types are considers together with modern structure of the land management. It appeared that soil erosion was at minimum in case the field plots did not exceed the size of elementary catchments.

Научные сообщения 

38-44 23

The coastal sector under consideration is a unique example of primarily constructional shingle coast. The main controlling factor were conditions of debris mobilization, both within the shore zone and on adjacent land, where physical weathering produced huge amounts of coarse material throughout of the Quaternary. This fact accounts for the prevalence of sediment accumulation, which is also favored by gentle slopes of the nearshore zone and the upper shelf.

44-51 25

Structural-geomorphological studies in the southern Caspian Lowland ascertained the presence of a series of large (hundreds of kilometers in diameter) macromorphostructures undergoing neotectonic movements of «key-board» type widely varying in rate. The macromorphostructures are found to correspond to deep-seated large blocks in the lower earthcrust, which developed in a continuous tectonic regime up to recent time. Intrusive activity was of primary importance in the blocks evolution at different tectonic stages. Each large crustal block appears to correspond to a definite type of morphostructure and sedimentary cover which is uniform in thickness and faultines density within the block. It may be suggested that large blocks of similar structure bear oil and gas deposits of the same type.

51-58 27

An ancient stream which flowed in the Nergal valley of Mars was 9.7 in deep, 803.3 m wide, its flow velocity was 5.9 m/s and discharge about 46,000 cub. m per sec. The values suggest abundant rainfall on Mars in the past. The calculations brought the author to a conclusion on the existence of at least one relatively warm «interglacial» on Mars (the time when the Nergal valley developed) which lasted not less than 6,000 years.

58-64 25

Configuration and distribution of sculptural and sculptural- alluvial formations in channels of East Siberian rivers are under control of geological-geomorphological factors, such as rock lithology and texture, tectonic structure, sediment delivery. Sculptural landforms - rock islands and stony ledges on the banks - are common for narrow valleys and places where rivers cut across tectonic structures. Sculptural-alluvial landforms are typical of the places where sediment input is abundant, such as tributary mouths and expanded sections of valleys.

64-70 18

The work is the first attempt to present a cartographic interpretation and analysis of slope deposits yield by gully network within the Volga drainage basin. The material yield was calculated from the data on gully growth rate, their density and average dimensions. The obtained values of the gully network growth rate are of considerable interest, as one of principal components of erosion-accumulation process within drainage basin of different order.

70-77 19

Problems are discussed of formation of channel-forming sediments on mountain rivers of the Western Tier-Shan. Factors are analyzed which control alluvium composition and distribution in the region over the large rivers and their tributaries. The leading role is shown to belong to slope processes and mudflows, the latter attenuate general decrease in particle diameter downstreams.

77-81 22

Типы русел рек бассейна верхнего Пура

82-85 24

Two areas in the middle reaches of the Shrenk River show the Pleistocene karst landforms exposed by erosion from under the 2nd terrace alluvium and non-sorted loams of the lacustrine-marine plain. Characteristic are shallow canyons of reticular pattern, with steep scree slopes, isolated rocks, niches and grottos. One of the sites features shallow rills (barren).

85-99 26

The paper contains an analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary relief modelled by the wind and water erosion and denudation at the margins of Dariganga volcanic area (SE Mongolia). The author obtained new data on the structure of denudational-deflational plains and various landforms developed on the surface of the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene Gobi peneplain (dry river valleys with hanging mouth, waterfalls and giant's kettles, large deflation hollows within the Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary basins, etc.). First established are evidences of paleo-seismic dislocations, such as longitudinal trenches in dry valley sides on grants, and «wild flysch» in rhythmically bedded sequences.


100-103 14

Основным предметом обсуждения ежегодного 23-го Вингхамтонского симпозиума (25--27 сентября, 1992, Университет Майами, Оксфорд, Огайо, США) явилось динамическое состояние геоморфологических систем. Целью симпозиума было практическое осмысление роли системной теории в геоморфологии, установление разграничении между традиционным системным мышлением и пока что мало используемыми нелинейными динамическими системными подходами. На симпозиуме присутствовало свыше 100 специалистов из 8 стран (Австралия, Австрия, Англия, Венесуэла, Германия, Канада, Россия, США). Все доклады (их было 19) опубликованы в специальном издании международного журнала «Геоморфология».


104-105 12

Ещё одно приближение к познанию эрозии почв - монография Г.А. Ларионова «Эрозия и дефляция почв» (М.: Изд-во МГУ, 1993. 200 с.)

106-108 15

Берега Мирового океана в современном освещении. Монографии: 

  • Каплин П.А., Леонтьев О.К., Лукьянова С.А., Никифоров Л.Г. «Берега» (М.: Мысль, 1991. 479 с. (Природа мира)).
  • Бёрд Эрик Ч.Ф. «Изменения береговой линии (глобальный обзор)» (Л.: Гидрометеоиздат, 1990. 255 с.).

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ISSN 2949-1789 (Print)
ISSN 2949-1797 (Online)