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Геоморфология

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№ 2 (2010)
https://doi.org/10.15356/0435-4281-2010-2

Общетеоретические статьи

3-10 197
Аннотация
The boundaries between landforms or relief types can be divided into two large groups: divergent, lined along the positive landforms, and cumulative, lined along the negative landforms. We study as an example a catchment basin - system, of which unity and stableness depend on the dynamic bonds - erosion-denudation processes in the first place. Geomorphologic elements of catchment basin are connected "downhill" by surface flow. The bonds 'uphill" are put into motion by lowering of the base level or undercutting the slope by water flow. The boundary of the system "catchment basin" is the watershed along which the four types of boundaries can be distinguished: apical (watersheds properly) pronounced mostly as the edges of the mountains, slope ones (transit), saddle ones (transfluvial) and watershed areas with ambiguous line of drainage devide.
10-18 218
Аннотация
Hierarchy of small drainage basins, conditions and factors of their forming, and typical processes on every hierarchic level are examined. The following spatiotemporal hierarchic levels have been distinguished: 1) slopes and bottoms of small drainage basins; 2) elementary basins; 3) single small drainage basins; 4) regional types of small drainage basins. Compiled spatiotemporal matrix shows how objects of investigation are distributed in accordance to their hierarchy. Every hierarchic level has its own complex of processes. Present day level deals with segments of small drainage basins, which are exposed to weather conditions. Anthropogenic activity reaches its maximum importance on the historical interval. Level of geological time intervals deals with great regional units, where climatic and tectonic conditions, rock features, etc are the most important factors. As a result, the necessity for selecting particular methods for every hierarchic level during investigation of small drainage basins is shown.

Научные сообщения

19-26 230
Аннотация

Катастрофические сели на Черноморском побережье России могут быть связаны с водяными смерчами. В соответствие с данными по оцеке ущерба и числу жертв селевая катастрофа 9 августа 2002 года стала одной из самых разрушительных за всю историю освоения региона.  Ее анализ показал, что смерч принес на сушу 42 мм осадков, которые дали основной импульс к возникновению селевого потока. Его твердый и жидкий сток составили соответственно: Wтв. = 268305 м3, Wжидк=  073222 м3. Общий объем воды, перенесенный смерчем более 600 тыс. м3.

Параметры селевого потока получены по специально разработанной методике, основанной на формуле расчета скорости селевого потока. Исходные данные получены в полевых маршрутных наблюдениях. Вычисления проведены для створа с известными морфометрическими характеристиками в приустьевой части долины.

26-36 295
Аннотация

Дальний Восток характеризуется высокой напряженностью современных геоморфологических процессов, общее возрастание которой наблюдается с запада на восток - в сторону океана, что связано с комплексом эндо- и экзогенных факторов (характером взаимодействия континентальной и океанической плит, преобладающим  направлением  воздействия влагонасыщенных воздушных масс и др.). Антропогенное вмешательство в регионах интенсивного освоения приводит здесь к резкой активизации катастрофических процессов. Для предупреждения и минимизации риска их проявления необходимо расширение сети систематических наблюдений за ходом природных процессов и учет результатов мониторинга при планировании и осуществлении хозяйственной деятельности.

36-54 237
Аннотация
The natural and anthropogenic components of the recent erosion and the changes of the suspended sediment yield in the five river basins (Zapadny Bug (Ukraine), Magdalena (Colombia), Bei-Nan (Taivan), Sanchuanhe (China), Indus (India, Pakistan, China)) were investigated. A novel method of estimation of these components was worked out. It is based on determination of the functional dependence between a drain of water (Q) and a suspended sediment yield (R) (R = kQm , where and mare empirical coefficients, characteristic for certain river basin) for the very earliest period of observation records, which noticeably differs in average values of R from the subsequent period/periods. This earliest period serves as a reference, which is compared with average values of for the subsequent period/periods. For any subsequent period the difference between real and calculated by above shown formula, extrapolated on this period, constitutes the anthropogenic component of the R. The author analyses the causes and structure of the directional changes in the suspended sediment yield and considers the ways of the elaboration of this approach.
55-59 182
Аннотация
The structure and the composition of glacier deposits are analyzed. It has been established that the ridge on the dam separating Lake Seidozero from Lake Lovozero is an ice-sheet push-dump moraine. It is formed in the Bоlling by fluvioglacial and glaciolacustrine sediments and in the Older Dryas by the moraine overlapping the sediments. Mountain glaciers formed end moraines in the Seidozero depression area probably in the Younger Dryas, in the Subboreal, and in the Subatlantic. But unlike the Khibiny Mountains, during the Little Ice Age no glaciers originated in the Lovozersky Mountains - much lower ones than the Khibiny.
60-68 262
Аннотация
There are two stages in the investigation of the mudflows on the Black Sea shores of the Krasnodar Territory the descriptive stage (1903-1963) and special purposed investigations (1963 - present days). The long showers and abundant precipitations originating from the tornado collapsed over the land are the sources of the fluid component of the mudflows. In the four regions of the seashore the sources of solid material of the mudflows are different. Within the Novorossiysk region the mining of the cement primary products - marl plays an important role. In the Gelengic region landslides and earth falls are the main sources of solid material. In the Tuapse region the erosion in the small erosional forms makes the main contribution to mudflows. In the Large Sochi region the mudflows appear in the result of different processes due to diversity of natural conditions and ever-increasing human impact. On the whole the mudflows intensity in the Black Sea shores is much less then in the other mountain regions of the Great Caucasus due to more forestation and less relief amplitudes.
69-78 227
Аннотация
Kerzhenets is the left tributary of the Volga River. Within the range of Kerzhensky natural reserve free meanders form about 90% of its channel length. During the last 40 years, the river channel underwent strong lateral deformations. They have noticeable impact on the flood plain landscapes and local activity. The convexity of the most part of the meanders has grown, but some of them were cutoff artificially to prevent the washout of the river bank.
78-91 229
Аннотация
Inherited drainage network evolution in Primorye proceeded under conditions of long-term consistency of main runoff directions. There are four main factors of river system reconfiguration in the Late Cenozoic: 1) basalt effusions, 2) variability of denudation in the Sikhote-Alin and Chernogorie due to morphostructure asymmetry, 3) the formation of arched structure, which transformed the submeridional drainage network into sublatitudinal one, 4) fluctuations of the Japan Sea level accompanied by river systems separation and drainage cut.
91-101 290
Аннотация
The Late Cretaceous-Paleogene, Neogene, Late Pliocene-Eopleistocene, and Pleistocene-Holocene valleys have been distinguished in the West Pribaikalye. The ancient valleys are associated with the relic of the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene peneplain. They are confined to the various mineral occurrences and spatially and genetically are related to the Quaternary gold placers. The Late Pliocene is the time of the beginning of peneplain deformation and the Baikal dome growth, the drainage reorientation, gradual destruction of old low-graded relief, and formation of contemporary alpine one and "goltsy". This epoch is also characterized by the development of river captures, retrograde erosion and formation of antecedent valleys.
102-107 255
Аннотация
Recreational potential of the coasts is in a great degree determined by gеomorphologiс recreational resources. Coastal processes effects the building activity. Aesthetic properties of the landscape depend on relief character. Each recreational dedication corresponds to the certain relief type. Field research on the north-western coast of the Crimea proved that relief of this territory is favorable for the development of health and leisure industry.
108-115 222
Аннотация
River net pattern in the vicinity of the southern salience of the Siberian platform has two features. 1) Arterial rivers flow mostly to the north in accordance with the general slope of the continental massive. 2) Some valleys have sublatitudinal direction and those comprise transsiberian lineament. River net pattern of the South Siberian platform is not affected by its mountain frame.
115-120 214
Аннотация
The map of channel-forming bedload sediments of the Eastern Europe rivers compiled by the author shows the two main patterns. Firstly, difference in the bedload grain size is associated with the different geomorphic and orographic provinces drained be the rivers. Secondly, on the lowland rivers there is a prominent negative trend of bedload grain size from the north to the south. First tendency emphasizes strong control which geological and geomorphic structure, mainly bedrock lithology and surface gradient, have over bedload grain size. The second trend can be explained by the distribution of Pleistocene glacial and fluvio-glacial deposits over the East European Plain. Rivers with gravel or sand-gravel channels are widespread in its western and northern parts where valleys are cut into the Middle and Late Pleistocene glacial deposits rich in coarse particles up to boulders. Widespread occurrence of silty and sandy-silty bedload in the rivers of the southern regions is associated with fluvial reworking of loessy loams accumulated under periglacial conditions and clayey marine deposits left by transgressions of the Black and Caspian seas. The rivers of central and eastern parts of the East-European plain commonly have sandy bed-load sediment. Fluvio-glacial deposits of the outwash plains are the main source of sandy particles as well as older alluvial sands left from the ancient rivers of the East-European plain.

Юбилеи

 
121-122 96
Аннотация
К 70-летию со дня рождения известного российского геоморфолога, заведующеего кафедрой физической географии и геоэкологии Волгоградского государственного педагогического университета, члена редколлегии журнала “Геоморфология”, члена Межвузовского научно-координационного совета по проблеме эрозионных, русловых и устьевых процессов при МГУ, доктора географических наук, профессора Брылева Виктора Андреевича.

Рецензии

123 218
Аннотация
Рецензия на вышедшее в свет в Томске в 2007 году пособие по морфолитогенезу "Экзогенные процессы рельефообразования и четвертичные отложения". В двух частях. 


ISSN 0435-4281 (Print)